|Birth name||Harold Adriano Russell Philby|
|Born||1 January 1912
Ambala, Punjab, British India
|Died||11 May 1988
Moscow , Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
|Buried||Kuntsevo Cemetery, Ryabinova Ulitsa, Moscow, Russia|
|Spouse||Alice (Litzi) Friedman
|Alma mater||Trinity College, Cambridge|
Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby (1 January 1912 – 11 May 1988) was a high-ranking member of British intelligence who worked as a spy for and later defected to the Soviet Union. A communist, he served as an NKVD and KGB operative.
In 1963, Philby was revealed to be a member of the spy ring now known as the Cambridge Five, the other members of which were Donald Maclean, Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt and John Cairncross. Of the five, Philby is believed to have been most successful in providing secret information to the Soviet Union. His activities were moderated only by Joseph Stalin's concern that he might be a double agent. Philby was an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) from 1946 to 1965.
Born in Ambala, Punjab, British India, Philby was the son of St. John Philby, a member of the Indian Civil Service and, later, a civil servant in Mesopotamia, a well-known author, orientalist, convert to Islam, and an advisor to Ibn Sa'ud of Saudi Arabia.
Nicknamed "Kim" after the young boy, son of an Irish soldier in Rudyard Kipling's novel Kim, Philby attended Aldro prep school. Following in the footsteps of his father, he continued to Westminster School, which he left in 1928 at the age of 16. He won a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he read history and economics. Whilst at Cambridge, he was treasurer of the Cambridge University Socialist Society, and canvassed for the Labour candidate for Cambridge in the 1931 election. He graduated in 1933 with a 2:1 degree in economics.
Upon Philby's graduation, Maurice Dobb – a fellow of King's College, Cambridge, and tutor in economics – introduced him to the World Federation for the Relief of the Victims of German Fascism in Paris. The World Federation was one of innumerable fronts operated by the German Communist Willi Münzenberg, a member of the Reichstag who had fled to France in 1933. Dobb, himself a Communist sympathiser, also placed Philby in contact with the Comintern underground in Vienna, Austria.
Whilst in Vienna, working to aid refugees from Nazi Germany, Philby met and fell in love with Litzi Friedmann (née Alice Kohlmann), a young Austrian Communist of Hungarian Jewish origins. Philby admired the strength of her political convictions, and later recalled that at their first meeting: "[a] frank and direct person, Litzi came out and asked me how much money I had. I replied £100, which I hoped would last me about a year in Vienna. She made some calculations and announced, 'That will leave you an excess of £25. You can give that to the International Organisation for Aid for Revolutionaries. We need it desperately.' I liked her determination." He acted as a courier to Vienna and Prague, paying for the train tickets out of his remaining £75 and using his British passport to evade suspicion. He also delivered clothes and money to refugees from the Nazis.
With threats of an armed uprising against the Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss (he was assassinated by Nazis the following year) and the killing of over 1,000 civilians by troops, Philby's British passport became still more valuable. Philby and Litzi married in February 1934, enabling her to escape to the United Kingdom with Philby a few months later. It is possible that it was a Viennese-born friend of Friedmann's in London, Edith Tudor-Hart – herself, at this time, an agent – who first approached Philby about the possibility of working for Soviet intelligence. According to Genrikh Borovik, who worked from Soviet archives, Tudor-Hart recommended Litzi and Philby in 1934. Yuri Modin, later one of the KGB controllers of the Cambridge Five, agrees: "Contrary to received opinion, it was neither Guy Burgess nor one of our own agents who lured Philby into the toils of the Soviet espionage apparatus. It was Litzi."
His first Soviet controller was the Hungarian Arnold Deutsch (code-name Otto) who came to London from Vienna to study at London University. He was soon replaced by Teodor Maly (code-name Man) who was also Hungarian. Philby also dealt with Anatol Gorsky (code-name Kap) the OGPU resident in London and his predecessor a German known as Reif (code-name Mar). All were shot in Moscow between 1936 and 1938 on trumped up charges of being either German or Polish spies. His first task for Otto was to make a list of his Cambridge contemporaries who might respond to discreet contact. He listed seven of which Donald Maclean was the first and Guy Burgess, the last.
In London, Philby enrolled at the School of Slavonic languages to learn Russian, helped by his father a friend of the director Denzil Ross. The school was well known for training people for a career in diplomacy or the intelligence services. Philby's Russian was never good and he soon took a job at a monthly magazine, the World Review of Reviews, for which he wrote articles and letters (sometimes under pseudonyms) and occasionally served as "acting editor."
At this point, Philby and Litzi separated. However, they remained friends and divorced only in 1946. When the Germans threatened to over-run Paris in 1940, where she was then living, he arranged her escape to England. In 1936, he joined a trade magazine the Anglo-Russian Trade Gazette as editor. However, the paper was failing and its owner changed its role to covering Anglo-German trade. Philby engaged in a concerted effort to make contact with Germans such as Joachim von Ribbentrop ambasador in London and later Reich Foreign Minister. He joined the Anglo-German Fellowship, which was supported both by the British and German Nazi Governments, and made many trips to Berlin.
In February 1937, Philby travelled to Seville, Spain. At the time, Spain was embroiled in a bloody civil war, triggered by the rebellion of Nationalist forces under General Francisco Franco against the socialist Republican government of President Manuel Azaña. Philby worked at first as a freelance journalist; from May 1937, he served as a correspondent for The Times, reporting from the side of the pro-Franco forces; however, he was also working for both Soviet and British intelligence; posting letters in a crude code to a fictitious girlfriend Mlle Dupont in Paris for the Russians; and a simpler system for MI6 delivering post at Hendaye, France for the British Embassy in Paris. After the war, visiting liberated Paris he was shocked to discover that the address that he used for Mlle Dupont, was that of the Soviet Embassy. His controller in Paris the Latvian Ozolin-Haskins (code name Pierre) was shot in Moscow in 1937. His successor Boris Shpak a Lithuanian (code-name Bazarov) suffered the same fate two years later.
Both services were interested in the combat performance of the new Messerschmitt Bf109s and Panzer I and IIs deployed with Nationalist forces in Spain. He was able to tell the British after a direct question to Franco that German troops would never be permitted to cross Spain to attack Gibraltar.
His Soviet controller at the time, Teodor Maly, reported in April 1937 to the NKVD that he had personally briefed Philby on the need "to discover the system of guarding Franco and his entourage." So as to assist in Franco's assassination, Philby was instructed to report on vulnerable points in Franco's security and recommend ways to gain access to him and his staff. However, such an act was never a real possibility; upon debriefing Philby in London on 24 May 1937, Maly wrote to the NKVD, "Though devoted and ready to sacrifice himself, [Philby] does not possess the physical courage and other qualities necessary for this [assassination] attempt."
In December 1937, during the battle of Teruel, a Republican shell hit just in front of the car in which Philby was travelling with the correspondents Edward J. Neil of the Associated Press, Bradish Johnson of Newsweek, and Ernest Sheepshanks of Reuters. Johnson was killed outright, and Neil and Sheepshanks soon died of their injuries, but Philby suffered only a minor head wound.
As a result of this accident, Philby, who was well liked by the Nationalist forces whose victories he trumpeted, was awarded the Red Cross of Military Merit by Franco on 2 March 1938. Philby found that the award proved helpful in obtaining access to fascist circles: "Before then," he later wrote, "there had been a lot of criticism of British journalists from Franco officers who seemed to think that the British in general must be a lot of Communists because so many were fighting with the International Brigades. After I had been wounded and decorated by Franco himself, I became known as ‘the English-decorated-by-Franco’ and all sorts of doors opened to me."
In 1938, Walter Krivitsky, (born Samuel Ginsberg) a former GRU officer in Paris who had defected to France the previous year, travelled to the United States and published an account of his time in "Stalin's secret service." He testified before the Dies Committee(later to become the House Un-American Activities Committee) regarding Soviet espionage within the United States, and in 1940 was interviewed by MI5 officers in London. Krivitsky claimed that two Soviet intelligence agents had penetrated the British Foreign Office, and that a third Soviet intelligence agent had worked as a journalist for a British newspaper during the civil war in Spain. Krivitzky was shot in a Washington hotel room, the following year.
Alexander Orlov (born Leiba Feldbin code-name Swede) Philby's controller in Madrid who once met him in Perpignan, France with the bulge of an automatic rifle clearly showing through his raincoat, also defected. He said nothing about Philby, in order to protect his family, still living in Russia - an agreement which Stalin did not renege on. Whilst on a short tripback from Spain, Philby tried to recruit Flora Solomon daughter of a Russian banker and gold dealer, a relative of the Rothschilds and wife of a London stockbroker as a Soviet agent. At the same time, Guy Burgess was trying to get her into MI6. But the resident in France - probably Pierre at this time - suggested to Moscow that he suspected Philby's motives. Solomon introduced Philby to his second wife Aileen Furse but went to work for the British retailer Marks & Spencer.
In July 1939 Philby returned to the Times office in London. The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, with its secret protocol that the Wehrmacht and the Red Army would divide Poland, shocked Philby. He often asked "Why was this necessary?" When Britain declared war on Germany as a result, the Soviets became Britain's enemy. Contact with his Soviet controllers was lost and Philby failed to attend meetings. During the Phoney War from September 1939 until the Dunkirk evacuation Philby worked as the Times correspondent with the British Expeditionary Force headquarters. After being evacuated from Boulogne on 21 May, he returned to France in mid-June (now representing the Daily Telegraph in addition to The Times), briefly reported from Cherbourg and Brest sailing for Plymouth less than twenty-four hours before the French surrender.
Esther Marson-Smedley a correspondent with the Daily Express who shared the train ride from Plymouth to London drinking French champagne then introduced him to Marjorie Maxse who offered him a role in the War Office.On his first meeting in her office, Philby was surprised to see his old friend from Cambridge Guy Burgess, who was already working there. His time there, however, was short-lived; the under-funded section was absorbed by the new Special Operations Executive (SOE) in July 1940. Burgess was fired for "irreverence", and Philby was appointed as an instructor in the art of clandestine propaganda at the SOE's training establishment in Beaulieu, Hampshire.
Philby's role as an instructor of sabotage agents again brought him to the attention of the OGPU. The new London resident Ivan Chichayev (code-name Vadim) re-established contact and asked for a list of names of agents being trained to enter the USSR. Philby replied that none had been sent and none were undergoing training. Moscow Centre at the Lubyanka underlined this message twice in red and placed two big question marks. They did not believe him according the Genrikh Borovik who saw the telegrams, much later, in the KGB archives.
Section IX was often known as Section D. (SIS Sections used Roman numerals, e.g., XX the Double-Cross was Section 20 aimed at misleading the Germans). Philby was originally a Section D officer and is so noted in a letter of 24 September 1940 written by Lt. Col.Valentine Vivian, the head of Section V at that time. Under Section IX was The Statistical Research Centre War Office (a cover name) mobilised on September 1939 on the outbreak of war at War Station No X Bletchley Park, charged with breaking the German Enigma codes. Philby was able to provide Stalin with advance warning of Operation Barbarossa and of the Japanese intention to strike south at Singapore instead of attacking Russia as Hitler urged. The first was ignored as a provocation but the second when confirmed by the Russo-German journalist and spy in Tokyo Richard Sorge enabled Stalin to transport Siberian troops from the Far East in time for Zhukov to use them to save Moscow.
By September 1941, Philby was working for Section V of MI6, responsible for offensive counter-intelligence. Sub section VX, i.e., Five, letter 'X' was responsible for 'Agent Double' or double agent operations and the use of ISOS and ISK signals intelligence, including Enigma intercepts. When passed to third parties signals intercepts or(SIGINT information was invariably disguised as the product of an agent such as Philby. On the strength of his knowledge and experience of Franco's Spain, he was put in charge of the subsection which dealt with Spain and Portugal. This entailed responsibility for a network of undercover operatives in Madrid, Lisbon, Gibraltar, and Tangier. At this time, the German Abwehr was active in Spain, particularly around the British naval base of Gibraltar, which its agents hoped to watch with cameras and radar to track Allied supply ships in the Western Mediterranean. Thanks to British counter-intelligence efforts, of which Philby's Iberian subsection formed a significant part, the project (code-named Bodden) never came to fruition. During 1942–43 Philby's responsibilities were expanded to include North Africa and Italy, and he was made the deputy head of Section V under Major Felix Cowgill, an army officer seconded to SIS. Cowgill was the SIS representative on the XX Committee run by John Masterman, which dealt with double agents working for the Abwehr but contolled by the British in Spain. Portugal and elsewhere. In late 1944, Philby was chosen to replace Cowgill as head of Section.
While with Section V, Philby met James Jesus Angleton a young American counter-intelligence officer working in liaison with SIS in London. Angleton, later chief of the Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA) counter-intelligence (CI) staff, became suspicious of Philby when he failed to pass on information relating to a British agent executed by the Gestapo in Germany. It later emerged that the agent – known as Schmidt – had also worked as an informant for the Rote Kapelle organisation, which sent information to both London and Moscow, at that time reluctant allies. Nevertheless, Angleton's suspicions went unheard.
In late summer 1943 the SIS provided the GRU with an official report of the activities of German agents in Bulgaria and Romania, soon to be invaded by the Red Army, The NKVD complained to Cecil Barclay SIS representative in Moscow that much had been withheld, who reported the complaint to London. Philby claimed to have overheard discussion of this by chance and sent a report to his controller. This turned out to be identical with Barclay's dispatch convincing the NKVD that he had seen the full Barclay report. A similar lapse occurred with a report from the Japanese Embassy in Moscow to Tokyo. The NKVD received the same report from Richard Sorge, its spy in Tokyo, but with a most significant extra paragraph that Hitler might seek peace with the Soviet Union. These lapses by Philby aroused intense suspicion in Moscow.
Elena Modrzhinskaya a plump blonde at GUGB headquarters in Moscow was the person who assessed all material from the Cambridge Five. She noted that they produced an extraordinary wealth on information on German war plans but next to nothing on the repeated question of British penetration of Russian intelligence in either London or Moscow. Philby had repeated his claim that there were no such agents. She asked “ Could the SIS really be such fools they failed to notice suitcase-loads of papers leaving the office? Could they have overlooked Philby's communist wife?” She concluded that all were double agents, working essentially for the British.
A more serious incident occurred in August 1945, when Konstantin Volkov, an NKVD agent and vice-consul in Istanbul, requested political asylum in Britain for himself and his wife. Volkov offered the names of three Soviet agents inside Britain in exchange for a large sum in pounds sterling: two of whom worked in the Foreign Office and the third of whom worked in counter-espionage in London. Philby was given the task of dealing with Volkov. He warned his Soviet controller and went to Istanbul – slowly. By the time he arrived in Turkey, three weeks later, Volkov had been removed to Moscow, in bandages.
Philby's role might have compromised his position. However, Volkov's defection had been discussed with the British Embassy in Ankara on telephones, tapped by Soviet intelligence. Volkov had insisted that all written communications about him take place by diplomatic bag rather than by telegraph, causing a delay in reaction that might plausibly have given the Soviets time to uncover his plans. Philby was thus able to evade blame and detection. A month later Igor Guzenko a cipher clerk in Ottawa took political asylum in Canada and gave the Mounties a lot of agent names. Philby could do nothing about this.
In February 1947, Philby was appointed head of British intelligence for Turkey, and posted to Istanbul with his second wife, Aileen, and their family. His public position was that of First Secretary at the British Consulate; in reality, his intelligence work required overseeing British agents and working with the Turkish security services.
Philby planned to infiltrate five or six groups of émigrés into Soviet Armenia or Soviet Georgia. But efforts amongst the expatriate community in Paris produced just two recruits. Turkish intelligence took them to a border crossing into Georgia but soon afterwards shots were heard. Another effort was made using a Turkish Gulet, for a seaborne landing but this never left port. He was implicated in a similar campaign in Albania. Colonel David Smiley, an aristocratic Guards officer who had helped Enver Hoxha and his Communist guerillas to liberate Albania, now prepared to liberate it from Hoxha. He trained Albanian commandos in Libya or Malta – some former Nazi collaborators. From 1947, they infliltrated the southern mountains to build support for former King Zog. The first three missions, overland from Greece were trouble free, and larger numbers were landed by sea and air under Operation Valuable which continued until 1951, increasingly under the influence of the newly-formed CIA. Stewart Menzies, head of SIS, disliked the idea, which was promoted by former SOE men now in SIS. Most infiltrators were caught by the Sigurimi, the Albanian Security Service. Clearly there had been leaks, and Philby was later suspected as one of the leakers. His own comment was “I do not say that people were happy under the regime but the CIA underestimated the degree of control that the Authorities had over the country.”
Aileen Philby (née Furse) had suffered since childhood from psychological problems which caused her to inflict injuries upon herself. In 1948, troubled by the heavy drinking and frequent depressions that had become a feature of her husband's life in Istanbul, she experienced a breakdown of this nature, staging an accident and injecting herself with urine and insulin to cause skin disfigurations. She was sent to a clinic in Switzerland to recover; however, upon her return to Istanbul in late 1948, she was burned badly in an incident with a charcoal stove, and returned to Switzerland. Shortly afterward, Philby was moved to the job as chief SIS representative in Washington, D.C., with his family.
In September 1949, the Philbys arrived in the United States. Officially, his post was that of First Secretary to the British Embassy; in reality, he served as chief British intelligence representative in Washington, D.C. His office oversaw a large amount of urgent and top-secret communications between the United States and London. Philby was, additionally, responsible for liaising with the newly-formed Central Intelligence Agency and promoting "more aggressive Anglo-American intelligence operations." A leading figure within the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was Philby's wary former colleague, James Jesus Angleton, with whom he once again found himself working closely. Angleton remained suspicious of Philby, but lunched with him every week in Washington. Teddy Kollek an Austrian Jew former agent of Mossad and mayor of Jerusalem recognised from their prewar Vienna days, saw them together and assumed that Angleton had "turned" Philby into a "Triple Agent". However, a more serious threat to Philby's position had come to light.
During the summer of 1945, a lazy Soviet cipher clerk had reused a one time pad to transmit intelligence traffic. This mistake doubled the chances of breaking the normally impregnable code. Contained in the traffic (intercepted and decrypted as part of the Venona project) was information that documents had been sent to Moscow from the British Embassy in Washington, D.C. Furthermore, the intercepted messages revealed that the British Embassy source (identified as "Homer") travelled to New York City to meet his Soviet contact twice a week. Philby had been briefed on the situation shortly before reaching Washington in 1949; it was clear to Philby that the agent was Donald Maclean, who worked in the British Embassy at the time and whose wife Melinda lived in New York. Philby had to help discover the identity of "Homer", but also wished to protect Maclean.
In January 1950, on evidence provided by the Venona intercepts, Soviet atomic spy Klaus Fuchs was arrested. His arrest led to others: Harry Gold, a courier with whom Fuchs had worked, David Greenglass, and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. Meanwhile, the investigation into the British Embassy leak was still ongoing, and the stress of it was exacerbated by the arrival in Washington, in October 1950, of Guy Burgess – Philby's unstable, dangerously alcoholic, and flamboyantly homosexual Cambridge colleague and fellow Soviet spy.
Burgess, who had been given a post as Second Secretary at the British Embassy, took up residence in the Philby family home and rapidly set about causing offence to all and sundry. Aileen Philby resented and disliked his presence; Americans were offended by his "natural superciliousness" and "utter contempt for the whole pyramid of values, attitudes, and courtesies of the American way of life." J. Edgar Hoover complained that Burgess used British Embassy automobiles to avoid arrest when he cruised Washington in pursuit of homosexual encounters. His dissolution had a troubling effect on Philby; the morning after a particularly disastrous and drunken party, a guest returning to collect his car heard voices upstairs and found "Kim and Guy in the bedroom drinking champagne. They had already been down to the Embassy but being unable to work had come back."
Burgess' presence was problematic for Philby, yet it was potentially dangerous for Philby to leave him unsupervised. The situation in Washington was tense. From April 1950, Donald Maclean had been the prime suspect in the investigation into the Embassy leak. Philby had undertaken to devise an escape plan which would warn Maclean, currently in England, of the intense suspicion he was under and arrange for him to flee. Burgess had to get to London to warn Maclean who was under surveillance. In early May 1951, Burgess got three speeding tickets in a single day – then pled diplomatic immunity, causing an official complaint to be made to the British Ambassador. Burgess was sent back to England, where he met Maclean in his London club.
The SIS planned to interrogate Maclean on 28 May 1951. On 23 May, concerned that Maclean had not yet fled, Philby wired Burgess, ostensibly about his Lincoln convertible abandoned in the Embassy car park. "If he did not act at once it would be too late," the telegram read, "because [Philby] would send his car to the scrap heap. There was nothing more [he] could do." On 25 May (Maclean's thirty-eighth birthday), Burgess drove Maclean from his home in Tatsfield to Southampton, where the two of them boarded a boat to France and thence to Moscow.
Burgess had been intended to aid Maclean in his escape, not accompany him in it. The "affair of the missing diplomats," as it was referred to before Burgess and Maclean surfaced in Moscow, attracted a great deal of public attention, and Burgess' disappearance, which identified him as complicit in Maclean's espionage, deeply compromised Philby's position. Under a cloud of suspicion raised by his highly visible and intimate association with Burgess, Philby returned to London. There, he underwent MI5 interrogation aimed at ascertaining whether he had acted as a "Third Man" in Burgess and Maclean's spy ring. In July 1951, he was resigned from MI6, preempting his all but inevitable dismissal.
Even after Philby's departure from MI6, speculation regarding his possible Soviet affiliations continued. Interrogated repeatedly regarding his intelligence work and his connection with Guy Burgess, he continued to deny that he had acted as a Soviet agent. From 1952, Philby struggled to find work as a journalist, eventually – in August 1954 – accepting a position with a diplomatic newsletter called the Fleet Street Letter. Lacking access to material of value, and out of touch with Soviet intelligence, he all but ceased to operate as a Soviet agent.
In October 1955, Philby was officially cleared by Foreign Secretary Harold Macmillan, who told the House of Commons, "I have no reason to conclude that Mr. Philby has at any time betrayed the interests of his country, or to identify him with the so-called 'Third Man', if indeed there was one." In November 1955, Philby gave a press conference in which – calmly, confidently, and without the stammer he had struggled with since childhood – he reiterated his innocence, declaring, "I have never been a communist."
After being exonerated, Philby was no longer employed by MI6. Soviet intelligence lost all contact with him. In August 1956, he was sent to Beirut as a Middle East correspondent for The Observer and The Economist. There, his journalism served as cover for the renewed work for MI6.
In Lebanon, Philby at first lived in Mahalla Jamil, his father's large household located just outside of Beirut, in the village of Ajaltun. Following the departure of his father and stepbrothers for Saudi Arabia, Philby continued to live alone in Ajaltun, but took a flat in Beirut after beginning an affair with Eleanor, the Seattle-born wife of New York Times correspondent Sam Pope Brewer. Following Aileen Philby's death in England in 1957, and Eleanor's subsequent divorce from Brewer, Philby and Eleanor were married in London in 1959, and set up house together in Beirut. From 1960, Philby's formerly marginal work as a journalist became more substantial, and he frequently travelled throughout the Middle East, including Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, and Yemen.
In 1961, Anatoliy Golitsyn, a major in the First Chief Directorate of the KGB, defected to the United States from his diplomatic post in Helsinki. Golitsyn offered the CIA revelations of Soviet agents within American and British intelligence services. Following his debriefing in the US, Golitsyn was sent to SIS for further questioning. The head of MI6, Dick White, only recently tranferred from MI5, had suspected Philby as the "Third Man." Golitsyn proceeded to confirm White's suspicions about Philby's role. It was decided that Nicholas Elliott, an MI6 officer recently stationed in Beirut who had previously believed in Philby's innocence, would attempt to secure Philby's full confession.
It is unclear whether Philby had been alerted, but he began suffering nervous breakdowns and from alcoholism. Eleanor noted that as 1962 wore on, expressions of tension in his life "became worse and were reflected in bouts of deep depression and drinking." She recalled returning home to Beirut from a sight-seeing trip in Jordan to find Philby "hopelessly drunk and incoherent with grief on the terrace of the flat," mourning the death of a little pet fox which had fallen from the balcony. When Nicholas Elliott met Philby in late 1962, the first time since Golitsyn's defection, he found Philby too drunk to stand, and with a bandaged head having fallen repeatedly and cracked his skull on a bathroom radiator, requiring stitches.
Philby told Elliott that he was "half expecting" to see him. Elliott recalled himself confronting him saying "I once looked up to you, Kim. My God, how I despise you now. I hope you've enough decency left to understand why." Prompted by Elliott's accusations, Philby proceeded to confirm the charges of espionage and describe his intelligence activities on behalf of the Soviets. However, when Elliott asked him to sign a written statement, he hesitated and requested a delay in the interrogation. Another meeting was scheduled to take place in the last week of January. It has since been suggested that the whole confrontation with Elliott had been nothing but a charade to convince the KGB that Philby had to be brought back to Moscow, where he could serve as a British penetration agent of Moscow Centre.
On the evening of Wednesday, 23 January 1963, Philby vanished from Beirut, failing to meet his wife for a dinner party at the home of Glen Balfour-Paul, First Secretary at the British Embassy. The Dolmatova, a Soviet freighter bound for Odessa, had left Beirut that morning so abruptly, that cargo was left scattered over the docks. Philby claims that he left Beirut on board this ship. However, others maintain that he escaped through Syria overland to Soviet Armenia and thence to Russia.
It was not until 1 July 1963 that Philby's flight to Moscow was officially confirmed and revealed. On 30 July, Soviet officials announced that they had granted him political asylum in the USSR, as well as Soviet citizenship.
Upon his arrival in Moscow, Philby quickly discovered that he was not a colonel in the KGB, as he had been led to believe. He was paid just 500 roubles a month, and his family was not immediately able to join him in exile. It was ten years before he walked through the doors of KGB headquarters, and he was given little real work of any kind. Philby was under virtual house arrest, guarded and having all visitors screened by the KGB. Mikhail Lyubimov, his closest KGB contact, explained that this was to guard his safety, but later admitted that the real reason was the KGB fear that Philby would return to London. 
Philby occupied himself by writing his memoirs, published in England in 1968 under the title My Silent War. (It is a measure of KGB distrust that the Russian version of this book was not published till 1980.) He continued to read the Times, which was not generally available in the USSR, listened to the BBC World Service, and was an avid follower of cricket.
Though Philby claimed publicly that he was content with his decisions, and that he missed nothing about England except "some friends, Colman's mustard, and Lea & Perrins Worcestershire sauce," Rufina later described Philby as "disappointed in many ways" by what he found in Moscow. "He saw people suffering too much," but he consoled himself by arguing that "the ideals were right but the way they were carried out was wrong. The fault lay with the people in charge. Philby drank heavily and suffered from loneliness and depression. According to Rufina, in the late 1960s he attempted suicide by slashing his wrists.
Philby died in Moscow in 1988, of heart failure. Only posthumously did he receive the praise and appreciation which had escaped him in life: he was awarded a hero's funeral and numerous medals by a grateful USSR, including the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, the highest distinction awarded for heroic feats in service to the Soviet state and society.
In February 1934, Philby married Alice (Litzi) Friedmann, an Austrian communist whom he had met in Vienna. They subsequently moved to England; however, as Philby assumed the role of a fascist sympathiser, they separated. Litzi lived in Paris before returning to London for the duration of the Second World War; she ultimately settled in East Germany.
While working as a correspondent in Spain, Philby began an affair with Frances Doble, Lady Lindsay-Hogg, an actress and aristocratic divorcée who was an admirer of Francisco Franco and Adolf Hitler. They travelled together in Spain through August 1939.
In 1940, he began living with Aileen Furse in London. Their first three children, Josephine, John, and Dudley Thomas, were born between 1941 and 1943. In 1946, Philby finally arranged a formal divorce from Litzi; he and Aileen were married on 25 September 1946, while Aileen was pregnant with their fourth child, Miranda. Their fifth child, Harry George, was born in 1950. Aileen suffered from psychiatric problems, which grew more severe during the period of poverty and suspicion following the flight of Burgess and Maclean. She lived separately from Philby, settling with their children in Crowborough while he lived first in London and later in Beirut. Weakened by alcoholism and frequent sickness, she died of influenza in December 1957.
In 1956, Philby began an affair with Eleanor Brewer, the wife of New York Times correspondent Sam Pope Brewer. Following Eleanor's divorce, the two married in January 1959. After Philby defected to the Soviet Union in 1963, Eleanor visited him in Moscow; in November 1964, following a visit to America, she returned, intending to settle permanently. However, in her absence, Philby had begun an affair with Donald Maclean's wife, Melinda. He and Eleanor divorced, and she departed Moscow in May 1965.
Melinda left Maclean, and briefly lived with Philby in Moscow; however, in 1968 she returned to Maclean.
In 1971, Philby married Rufina Ivanova Pukhova, a Russo-Polish woman twenty years his junior, with whom he lived until his death in 1988.